The Group’s greenhouse gas emissions consist almost exclusively of carbon dioxide generated by fossil fuels for heating, transport, power generation and the purchase of electricity from third parties staff travel (service/maintenance activities, business trips and commuting from home to work).
In addition to these, fugitive emissions i.e. hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs and HFCs) and other gases from air conditioning systems are also considered and converted into kg of CO2 equivalent.
For atmospheric emissions as well, use is made of the GHG Protocol approach, distinguishing between direct or Scope1 emissions (use of fossil fuels for transport, heating, power generation and fugitive emissions), indirect or Scope2 emissions (purchase of electricity for industrial and civil use) and other indirect or Scope3 emissions. Unless otherwise stated, the atmospheric emission figures given here have been calculated based on the updated coefficients made available by the GHG Protocol. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions are negligible.
Information on Group's emissions, strategy, measures, management of climate change related risks and opportunities are also communicated every year to stakeholders through the CDP Climate Change questionnaire. In 2019 CDP TIM has achieved a B, which testifies a good management of climate change related issues.
Carbon Intensity Indicator
TIM also measures the “Carbon Intensity” of its Domestic BU by using an indicator that establishes a relationship between the \company’s direct and indirect operational CO2 emissions (Scope 1 and Scope 2), measured in kg and generated by Company's activities), with the service offered to the customers (Tbits transmitted).
The factors taken into consideration are the amount of data and voice traffic of the fixed/mobile network and direct emissions produced by using fossil fuels for heating, vehicles and self-production of electrical energy together with indirect emissions due to purchase and consumption of electrical energy from grid.
In 2019 the value of the indicator fell by more than 17% compared to 2018 and by more than 33% compared to 2017. The traffic transmitted increased by more than 9% compared to 2018 and by 39% compared to 2017. 
For the next years, TIM proposes the following target values:
2020: 6.73 kg CO2e / Tbit
2021: 6.20 kg CO2e / Tbit
2022: 5.48 kg CO2e / Tbit
2023: 4.50 kg CO2e / Tbit
2024: 3.50 kg CO2e / Tbit
2025: 2.50 kg CO2e / Tbit
 The comparison was made with a 2017 data updated with respect to that reported in the last Sustainability Report, as the result of a review carried out after the publication of the 2017 Report. The updated carbon intensity index data for 2017 is 10.6 kg of CO2 /Tbit.