Born in Bari on January 6, 1949, Salvatore Rossi graduated in mathematics from the University of Bari in 1975. He was visiting scholar on economic issues at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge (MIT).
He was a member of the Foundation Board of Directors of the International Center for Monetary and Banking Studies (ICMB) in Geneva and of the Governing Council of the Einaudi Institute for Economics and Finance (EIEF).
He was also a member of the Steering Committee of the Fondo Strategico Italiano (Italian Strategic Fund), the Presidential Council of the Italian Economic Association, the Eurosystem Information System Steering Committee and a member of the Commission to guarantee the quality of statistical information.
In 1976, he joined the Bank of Italy. He was first assigned to the Supervisory Unit of the Milan regional office, then, in 1979, to the Economic Research Department, he was Head of the Economic Research Department from 2000 to 2007. He was Managing Director for Economics, Statistics and Research at the Bank of Italy from 2007 to 2011, Secretary General and Advisor to the Governing Board for economic policy matters from 2011 to 2012 and Deputy Governor of the Bank of Italy from January 2012 to May 2013.
From May 10, 2013 to May 9, 2019, he was Senior Deputy Governor of the Bank of Italy and President of the Insurance Supervisory Authority (IVASS). In recent years he has been part of the Italian delegation at both the G7 and the G20.
In 2013 he was part of the "Working Group on Economic, Social and European Issues" (the so-called "Group of Wise Men") established by the President of the Republic Giorgio Napolitano.
He is currently a member of the Istituto Affari Internazionali (IAI) and of the Board of Directors of the Giovanni Agnelli Foundation. He is Chairman of the Scuola Normale Superiore, Sant’Anna and IUSS Federation and a professor at LUISS. He is also member of the Governing Board of CENSIS and Assonime, of the Advisory Board of WeBuild and of the Board of Directors of the European Institute of Oncology and Treccani. He is Chairman of the Investment Committee AIF of Pramerica SGR S.p.A.
Salvatore Rossi is the author of numerous articles and books, amongst which: Competere in Europa (Competing in Europe); La bilancia dei pagamenti: i conti con l'estero dell'Italia, la lira, i problemi dell'unione monetaria europea; La nuova economia: i fatti dietro il mito; La regina e il cavallo; La politica economica italiana 1968-2007; Controtempo; Processo alla finanza; Che cosa sa fare l'Italia; Oro; La Ragione e il Buonsenso; La politica economica italiana dal 1968 a oggi.
In October 2019 he was co-opted in TIM’s Board of Directors and he was appointed Chairman. Confirmed in the role of Chairman after the renewal of the Board of Directors in April 2021, Salvatore Rossi is also Chairman of TIM’s Sustainability Committee, as well as Chairman of Fondazione TIM. On November 26 , 2021, the Board of Directors granted him, responsibilities and powers relating to Partnership & Alliances, Institutional Communications, Sustainability Projects & Sponsorship, Public Affairs, as well as responsibility for managing TIM's assets and activities of strategic importance for the national defence and security system.